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药食同源不等于以食代药

药食同源不等于以食代药

“药食同源”是为人所熟知的一个概念,但药物与食物在其发生发展过程中,究竟是怎样一种关系,却很少有人说得清楚。

药食关系与食物疗病

NONGGENGSHIDAIYIQIAN,SHIWUZHUYAOTONGGUOCAIBUHUODE,YULIEXUYAOTILI,CAIJIGENGXUYAOZHIHUI。《HUAINANZI·XIUWUXUN》SHUO:“(SHENNONG)CHANGBAICAOZHIZIWEI,SHUIQUANZHIGANKU,LINGMINZHISUOPIJIU。DANGCIZHISHI,YIRIERYUQISHIDU。”

YAOWUDECHUXIAN,JIYURENLEIYOUYISHIDEMIYAOXINGWEI,ZHEIYIGUOCHENGQUESHIYUMISHIYOUGUAN。CHUANSHUO,“SHENNONG”PINCHANGLEDAHUANGDEGENJING,FUTONGFUXIE,YUSHIJIANGZHEIZHONG“YEDAGENHUANG”DEZHIWULIERUYOUDUYOUHAIPINDEQINGDAN,CHENGWEICHUANSHUOZHONGSUOZAOYUDE“QISHIDU”ZHIYI,ZHIDAOYOUYITIAN,BULUOZHONGDEMOURENYINYINSHIJIJUERBEISHOUJIANAO,“SHENNONG”HURANXIANGQIZHEIZHUNENGGOU“DANGDICHANGWEI,TUICHENZHIXIN”DEZHIWU,ZHAOLAIJIBINGZHEFUXIA,GEZHONGBUSHUFUHUORANERYU。RENLEIZHILIAOSHISHANGDIYIZHONGYAOWUJIUCICHANSHENG,“JUDUYAOYIGONGYISHI”,DAZHIJIUSHIZHEIGEYISI。

《ZHOULI》ZHONGJIESHAO,TIANGUANZHONGZAIZHIXIAYOUSHANFU,ZONGGUANWANGGONGDEYINSHIPENGREN,ZAIYUSHANFUPINGJIDEYISHIXILIEZHONGYOU“SHIYI”,ZHUANMEN“ZHANGHEWANGZHILIUSHI、LIUYIN、LIUSHAN、BAIXIU、BAIJIANG、BAZHENZHIQI(TONGJI)”。SHIYIDEZHIZEZHUYAOSHIGENJUDANGSHIDEYIXUELAIDAPEIYINSHI,QIGONGZUOXINGZHILEISIYUHOUSHIDEYINGYANGPEISHANSHI。WEIJINNANBEICHAOSHIWULEIZHUZUOSHENDUO,DAZHIKEYIFENWEILIANGLEI:YILEIPIANYUSHANFUPAOGUAN,YIJIZAIYUANLIAOZHUCUN、JIAGONGNIANGZAO、PENGRENCAOZUOWEIZHU,NAIZHIRUJISIDENGZHONGDAHUODONGZHONGDEYISHIHUACHENGXUYEZAIQIZHONG;LINGYILEIPIANYUSHIYI,ZHUYAOYOUSHIJIN、SHIYANG、SHIZHIDENGSANGEFANGMIAN,ERRENGRANYISHIWUJINJIWEIZHU。RU《SUISHU·JINGJIZHI》ZHULUZHI《LAOZIJINSHIJING》《HUANGDIZAYINSHIJI》;CIWAI,TAOHONGJING《YANGXINGYANMINGLU·SHIJIEPIAN》YEZHUANMENTAOLUNSHIJI。ZHIYUYISHIYANG、SHIZHIWEIZONGZHIDEZHUANZHUHUODANGYISUNSIMIAO《BEIJIQIANJINYAOFANG》JUANERSHILIUZHI“SHIZHI”WEISHIZU。

SHIWUZHIBINGBINGFEITANGDAICAIYOU,《ZHOULI·TIANGUAN·JIYI》ZAI:“YIWUWEI、WUGU、WUYAOYANGQIBING”,JUZHENGXUANZHU:“WUGU,MA、SHU、JI、MAI、DOUYE。”SUIDAIYANGSHANGSHAN《HUANGDINEIJINGTAISU》ZAI:“WUGU、WUCHU、WUGUO、WUCAI,YONGZHICHONGJIZEWEIZHISHI,YIQILIAOBINGZEWEIZHIYAO。SHIYIPIBINGYISHIJINGMI,JIQIYAOYE;YONGCHONGJIXU,JIWEISHIYE。GUDANSHIRUKOUZISHENZHIWU,LIJIERUOSHI。”

YAOWUYUSHIWUZHIJIANNANYUJIERANHUADUAN。《JINKUIYAOLVE》YOUDANGGUISHENGJIANGYANGROUTANG,ZHIHANSHAN,FUZHONGTONG、LIJI。DANGGUISANLIANG、SHENGJIANGWULIANG、YANGROUYIJIN,YISHUIBASHENG,ZHUQUSANSHENG,WENFUQIHE,RISANFU。《SANGUOZHI·HUATUOCHUAN》YUN:“TUOXINGDAO,JIANYIRENBINGYANSAI,SHISHIERBUDEXIA,JIARENCHEZAIYUWANGJIUYI。TUOWENQISHENYIN,ZHUCHEWANGSHI,YUZHIYUE:XIANGLAIDAOBIANYOUMAIBINGJIASUANJIDAZUO,CONGQUSANSHENGYINZHI,BINGZIDANGQU。JIRUTUOYAN,LITUSHEYIMEI。”DUICI,TAOHONGJINGZAI《BENCAOJINGJIZHU·XULU》ZHONGSHUO:“CIGAITIANDIJIANWU,MOBUWEITIANDIJIANYONG,CHUYUZEHUI,FEIQIZHUDUIYI。”

从《千金食治》到《食疗本草》

《QIANJINSHIZHI》GONGFENWUPIAN,JIANGBENCAOGUOSHI、CAISHU、GUMI、NIAOSHOUBULEIZHONGYOUGUANTIAOWENZHAILUCHULAI,BINGJIANGSHIJIDENEIRONGZENGBUQIZHONG。BIRUMINGYETIAOSHUO:“MINGYE,WEIKU、XIAN、SUAN,WEN,WUDU。KEJIUSHI,LINGRENYOULI,YUEZHI,WEIDONGQI。HUANGDIYUN:BUKEGONGJIUSHI,LINGRENSHENZHONG。”MINGYEJICHAYE,JU《CHAJING》YIN《SHENNONGSHIJING》YUN:“CHAMINGJIUFU,LINGRENYOULI、YUEZHI。”YOUYINHUJUSHI《SHIJI》YUN:“KUCHAJIUSHIYUHUA。YUJIUTONGSHI,LINGRENTIZHONG。”ZHEIXIEWENXIANDOUKENENGWEISUNSIMIAOCANKAO,ZHUANLURU《QIANJINSHIZHI》。

MENGSHENSHISUNSIMIAODEDIZI,SHANYUSHESHENG,CHANGYIYAOERWEISHI,YIXIANGXIALING,ZUNIANJIUSHISAN。《JIUTANGSHU》ZAIQIGEYANYUN:“RUONENGBAOSHENYANGXINGZHE,CHANGXUSHANYANMOLIKOU,LIANGYAOMOLISHOU。”LIANG《TANGSHU》JIEYANMENGSHENZHUANYOU《BUYANGFANG》《BIXIAOFANG》GESANJUAN,LINGJU《JIAYOUBENCAO》YINSHUJIETI,TIDAO《SHILIAOBENCAO》YUN:“TANGTONGZHOUCISHIMENGSHENZHUAN,ZHANGDINGYOUBUQIBUZUZHEBASHIJIUZHONG,BINGJIUWEIERBAIERSHIQITIAO,JIESHUOSHIYAOZHIBINGZHIXIAO。FANSANJUAN。”GUYIBANRENWEI,MENGSHENSUOZHUYUANSHUMING“BUYANGFANG”,JINGZHANGDINGZENGBUERGAIMING“SHILIAOBENCAO”。《SHILIAOBENCAO》DESHUMINGYEDAXIANYUSHI。

SUOWEI“SHILIAO”,QISHIYU“SHIZHI”TONGYI。JIUNEIRONGLAIKAN,YANXU《QIANJINSHIZHI》ERYOUFAZHAN。YIMINGYETIAOWEILI,《SHILIAOBENCAO》YUN:“MINGYE,LIDACHANG,QUREJIETAN。ZHUQUZHI,YONGZHUZHOULIANG。YOU,CHAZHUXIAQI,CHUHAOSHUI,XIAOSUSHI,DANGRICHENGZHELIANG。ZHENG、DAOJINGSU,YONGCHENGUZHE,JIDONGFENGFAQI。SHIRENYOUYONGHUAI、LIUCHUSHENGNENYAYEZAZHI。”

YOUYISIDESHI,《SHILIAOBENCAO》ZAIHENDUOTIAOMUXIADOUTIDAONANBEIFANGCHAYI,RUHAIZAOTIAOSHUO:“NANFANGRENDUOSHIZHI,CHUANYUBEIREN,BEIRENSHIZHIBEISHENGZHUBING,GENGBUYIYI。”KUNBUTIAOSHUO:“HAIDAOZHIRENAISHI,WEIWUHAOCAI,ZHISHICIWU。FUJIU,BINGYIBUSHENG。SUICHUANSHUOQIGONGYUBEIREN。BEIRENSHIZHI,BINGJIESHENG。”JIUQIYUANYIN,RENWEI“SHISHUITUBUYIER”。XINGTIAOSHUO:“RUONANFANGRENBEIJU,XINGYIBUSHI;BEIDIRENNANZHU,MEINAIDANDUO。”ZUOZHEJIESHIYUN:“QIBUSHIDIQIYUZHENG,LINGRENFANKUI,HAOSHISIWUYE。”

食养、食忌、食治

CHU《SHILIAOBENCAO》WAI,ZHONGYAODESHILIAOZHUZUOHAIYOUTANGZANYIN《SHIYIXINJING》、WUDAICHENSHILIANG《SHIXINGBENCAO》、BEISONGWANGHUAIYINDENG《TAIPINGSHENGHUIFANG》、YUANHUSIHUI《YINSHANZHENGYAO》、YUANJIAMING《YINSHIXUZHI》,YIJIMINGDAIDE《SHIWUBENCAO》,QINGWANGSHIXIONG《SUIXIJUYINSHIPU》DENG,JIEGEYOUTEDIAN,DANNEIRONGSHANGZONGBUCHAOCHUSHIYANG、SHIJIN、SHIZHISANGEFANGMIAN。

XIANSHUO“SHIYANG”,ZHEIYUXIANDAIYINGYANGXUEYOUYIDINGLIANXI,YESHIGUDAISHILIAOBIAOXIANTECHUDEDIFANG。RULIYONGHAIZAO、KUNBUYIJIDONGWUDEJIAZHUANGXIAN(YANGYE、LUYE)ZHILEIHANDIANFENGFUDEWUZHI,ZHILIAOQUEDIANYINQIDEDIFANGXINGJIAZHUANGXIANZHONG(YINGLIU);YIFUHANWEISHENGSUADEDONGWUGANZANGGAISHANYEMANGZHENG(QUEMANG)BINGRENDESHILI。

“SHIJI”DAYUEYOUSANZHONGQINGKUANG。YIZHONGSHIJIBINGJINJI,BIRUTONGFENGBINGRENBIMIANSHIYONGPIAOLINGHANLIANGJIAOGAODESHIWU,RUDOUZHIPIN、HAICHANPIN;TANGNIAOBINGHUANZHEYINGKONGZHITANSHUIHUAHEWUDESHERU;GAOXUEYABINGRENYINGGAIZHUYIDINAYINSHI。YIZHONGSHIYAOSHIJINJI,BIRUYINCHAJIANGDITIEJIDEXISHOU,SHIYONGTOUBAOJUNSUQIJIANYINJIUKENENGCHUXIANSHUANGLIULUNFANYINGDENG。GUDAISHILIAOWENXIANZHONG,ZHEILIANGLEISHIJIYEYOUHENDUO,QICHUFADIANGUJINJIBENYIZHI。HAIYOUYIZHONGSHISHIWUZHIJIANDEJINJI,DAGAIJIUSHIXIANRUJINSHIWUZHIJIANDEXIANGKE。

YIXIESHIWUZHIBINGZAIMINJIANKOUERXIANGCHUAN,SUICHENGWEIDIANPUBUPODE“ZHENLI”。DANXUYAODAZHONGRENQINGDESHI,SHIWULIAOJI,YAOWUZHIBING,NAISHICHANGSHI;RUOSHIDIANDAOGUOLAI,YIYAOWANCHONGJI,YONGSHIWUZHIBING,ZECHENGWEIXIAOTAN。YIXIANGBIYUKEYISHUOMING“SHIYANG”YU“SHIZHI”DEBUTONG。JIYUBUTAIQUEQIEDEYANJIUBAOGAO,SHUOQINCAISUOHANDEQINCAISUHUOXUYOUZHUYUKONGZHIXUEYA,YUSHIRANGGAOXUEYABINGRENCHANGCHIQINCAI,ZHEIYANGDEJIANYISUANBUDELIPU;DANRUOYINCIRANGBINGRENTINGZHIYONGZHENGGUIDEGAOXUEYAYAOWUZHILIAO,ZHUANMENKAOQINCAILAIJIANGDIXUEYA,JIUHUANGMIUERYOUHAILE。

HEYIRUCINI?YAOYUSHITONGYUANERYITU,SHIWUSHINENGGOUMANZUJITIZHENGCHANGSHENGLIHESHENGHUANENGLIANGXUQIU,BINGNENGYANXUZHENGCHANGSHOUMINGDEWUZHI。XIANGDUIYUYAOWUERYAN,SHIWUDUIJITISHENGLISHENGHUAGUOCHENGDEGANYUJIXIAO,ZHENGYINRUCI,ZHANGQINAIZHIZHONGSHENSHIYONG,YIBANBUHUIJIJITIZAOCHENGYANZHONGSHANGHAI;YEZHENGYINRUCI,SHIWUBUZUYIGAIBIANYINJIBINGERYICHANGDESHENGLISHENGHUAGUOCHENG,GUBUKENENGQUDAIYAOWU。

JISHIZHANZAIZHONGYIXUEDELICHANG,GUODUQIANGDIAOSHIWULIAOJI,YEHENNANZUODAOLUOJIZIQIA。SUNSIMIAOZAI《QIANJINSHIZHI》DEXULUNZHONGMINGQUECHENGRENYAOYUSHIWEILIANGTU,JISUOWEI“ANSHENZHIBEN,BIZIYUSHI;JIUJIZHISU,BIPINGYUYAO。BUZHISHIYIZHE,BUZUYICUNSHENGYE;BUMINGYAOJIZHE,BUNENGYICHUBINGYE”,BINGZHICHU,ZHISHIYUANYUYAOXINGMENGLIE,DANXIN“FAYONGGUAIYI,SUNSHANGCHUZHONG”,SUOYIJIANYIYISHENGZHIBING,XIAN“YISHIZHIZHI”,RUO“SHILIAOBUYU,RANHOUMINGYAO”。DANSHI,BINGMEIYOUYISHILIAODAIYAOLIAODEYISI。《TAIPINGSHENGHUIFANG·SHIZHILUN》JIBINGCHENGCIZHI,BASHILIAOZUOWEIYAOLIAODEFUZHU。RUZAI“SHIZHISANXIAO(XIAOKE、XIAOZHONG、XIAOSHEN)ZHUFANG”DEYINLUNZHONGSHUO:“JINYIYINSHIDIAOZHI,YIZHUYAOLIYE。”DANGRAN,ANZHAOJINTIANDEYIXUEGUANDIAN,NENGBEISHIWUZHIYUDEJIBING,DUOSHUYESUANBUDEZHENZHENGYIYIDEJIBING。(WANGJIAKUI CHENGDOUZHONGYIYAODAXUE)

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